Ringkasan Eksekutif 2006 - 2015
This State Forest Management Plan has been formulated by the Forestry Department, Pahang following the framework outlined in the ‘Forest Management Planning Rules and Guidelines (FMPRG):3f1: Content and Write-up of State Forest Management Plan’, published as Technical Document No. B57 of the Sustainable Forest Management and Conservation Project Producing this forest management plan is a requirement of Act 313 of the National Forestry Act (NFA, 1984) where the plan is described in Section 2 of the Act. In the act it is stated that a“Forest Management Plan means an operating plan relating to silvicultural, economic or conservation activity or programme prescribed for a particular permanent reserved forest or part thereof to secure the orderly taking, renewal and conservation of trees in accordance with the principles of sustained yield”.The legal responsibility of producing the plan lies within the responsibility of the State Forestry Director.In section 4 of the Act 313, it is stated that “the State Director of Forestry shall cause to be prepared and implemented a State Forest Management Plan which will prescribe the allowable cut either in terms of volume or area in accordance with principle of sustained yield and cause to be reviewed from time to time the State Forest Management Plan”.
The planning process included the following:
Complete verification and consolidation of data on the Pahang State forest resource base.This included a forest district by district verification of the forest reserves compartment management history; consultation with all State Forestry Department management staff on the proposed management strategies that need to be considered over the planning period to ensure the successful implementation of sustainable forest management and consultative review of the drafts of the management plan by all officers directly involved in forest resource management in the state.
The planning period covers a 10 year period from 2006 until 2015.This includes the 9th and the 10th Malaysia Plans implementation time-frame.A mid-term review will be performed at the end of the 9th Malaysia Plan in 2010.
The objectives of this Pahang State Forest Management Plan (PFMP) are in line with the objectives of the National Forestry Policy (Revised in 1992) and they are to conserve and manage the forest through sustainable management and maintain its important roles in the national economy and preservation of environmental stability.
Briefly, the National Forestry Policy aims to achieve the following:
- ·To set aside sufficient areas as Permanent Forest Estate under categories such as Protection Forest, Production Forest, Amenity Forest, and Research and Education Forest.
- ·To ensure the preservation and sustainable management of forest resources through efficient forest law enforcement.
- ·To implement Sustainable Forest Management and manage the forest in accordance with the principles of sustainable yield management for the maximisation of social, economic and environmental benefits of the nation.
- ·To upgrade programmes of forest development through regeneration and rehabilitation operations in accordance with appropriate silvicultural practices to achieve maximum productivity.
- ·To promote efficient harvesting methods with prescribed forest management and harvesting plans for sustaining the production of forest produce.
- ·To attain a rational balance between the national industrial processing capacity and resource availability.
- ·To continue promoting Bumiputera participation in the field of wood-based industries parallel with the Government's National Development Policy.
- ·To establish and manage forest plantations to supplement timber supply from the natural forest and to promote active private sector investment in the establishment and development of forest plantations.
- ·To promote active involvement of local community in agro-forestry programmes.
- ·To increase non-wood forest products for local consumption and to meet the need of related processing industries.
- ·To encourage public and private sectors involvement in promoting scientific research in all aspects of forestry.
- ·To increase trained manpower needed in forestry and wood-based industries.
- ·To promote forestry education, publicity and extension services.
- ·To conserve biological diversity by conducting and implementing appropriate programmes on the conservation of unique species of flora and fauna.
- ·To develop community forestry programmes and provide facilities for recreation and tourism.
- ·To set aside specific areas for the purpose of education and scientific interests.
- ·To foster closer international communication and co-operation in order to achieve a better understanding in the management and development of the tropical rain forests.
The long-term goals of forest management in the state of Pahang is toconserve and manage the forest resources sustainably, to ensure the provision of environmental goods and services as well as to maintain forested areas for the conservation of biological diversity, education, research and other needs of Malaysians.
In line with this objective, the vision of the State Forestry Department is to be the agency of excellence in the sustainable management of tropical forest.The mission of the Department is geared towards sustainable management and development of the forest resources and optimising contributions to national socio-economic development.
The goals of Forest Management in Pahang are outlined in the 17 targets of the National Forest Policy 1978 (revised in 1992). It is recognised that forestry management plays an essential role in regulating timber supply as well as maintaining environmental goods and services, such as safeguarding water resources and catchments, conserving and reclaiming soils, as well as the provision of amenity and forest-related support for the social needs of the public.
The fundamental principles of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in Pahang are the sustained provision of products, goods and services; economic viability, social acceptability and the minimisation of environmental/ecological impacts.
The management strategies addressed in the Pahang State Forest Management Plan include:
- Sustainable timber production
- Protection of forests
- Planning and management to sustain natural processes – biological, environmental,
- Forest resource development
- Social development through recreation and education.
- Sustainable use of non-timber products
- Forest industry development
- Human resource and infrastructure development.
The objectives of management are as follows:
- To manage the forest resources sustainably for the continuous production of forest goods and services and their optimum utilisation, compatible with environmental requirements.
- To increase the supply of forest goods and services through appropriate forestry activities that enhances the quality, productivity and utilisation of the forest resources.
- To further develop appropriate environmentally sound technology for the conservation, management and utilisation of the forest resources.
- To conserve and protect the forests biological diversity, water and soil, and their sustainable utilisation.
- To increase the quality and efficiency of the forest-based processing mills and enhance higher value added downstream activities.
- To strengthen human resource development (HRD) to support the forestry sector.
- To improve public awareness on the environmental and conservational roles of forests through education and dissemination of information.
- To increase the forestry sector’s contribution to national income, foreign exchange, earnings and employment opportunities.
In order to achieve the objectives stated above, there will be a systematic review of the total forestry resources of the state and their sustainable management in accordance with the decisions of the National Forestry Council as well as in accordance with the MC&I (2002) to ensure sustainability and certification and development of appropriate Human Capital in the State Forestry Department and the incorporation of a conservation vision and philosophy into the staff of the department and adoption of a Clients’ Charter.
The evolution of forest management in Pahang reflects the general history of forest management in the Peninsular Malaysia which dates back to 1901. This evolution of forest management was directed by the early objectives of forest utilisation.Initially, this began with firewood removal; advancing to selective removal of durable heavy hardwoods from the lowland dipterocarp forests; to the current practice of removing a wider choice of species from the hill dipterocarp forests.Over the years, forest management practices in the Peninsular have undergone a process of revision and development to meet a spectrum of changing conditions.These changing conditions include:
- Changes in forest structural and compositional elements when there was the shift in forest production from lowland dipterocarp forests to hill dipterocarp forests;
- Fluctuations in the timber market allied with the uncertainties in the supply and demand of wood products locally and internationally;
- Advancements made in logging and harvesting technologies and timber transport;
- Advancements made in the preservation and industrial processing of wood, especially the development of plywood, veneers and other panel products;
- Population increase creating a higher demand for not only wood but land resources and
- The realisation and widespread acceptance of the conservation ideology both locally and globally.
The heterogeneous forest of the Peninsular Malaysia being of varying stand structure and species composition compounds management of the resource.The sustainable utilisation of the tropical rain forest in Peninsular Malaysia is a challenge to both ecology and natural resource management.Malaysian forestry is now in an era where the industry's sustainability hinges on sound forest management and the implementation and adherence to an effective silvicultural system.
The total land area in Pahang is 3,596,585 ha.As of Dec 2005, there are 1,981,185 ha (55.1 %) of forested land and 1,615,400 ha (44.9 %) of non-forested land.Under the forested land category, a total of 1,409,978 ha are currently under the Permanent Reserve Forest (PRF) classification.This consists of variousforest types and ecosystems ranging from mangroves, coastal vegetation to hill and montane forest.In addition, there are 571,207 ha classed as other forest lands which include reserves established by the Department of Wildlife and National Park (DWNP) (Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN)) (331,959 ha) and State Land Forests (239,248 ha of which 74, 120.5 ha has been proposed for inclusion into the PRF category).
Forests under the PRF category is most extensive in Jerantut Forest District with an area of 369,744 ha, followed by Lipis (271,394 ha), then by Kuantan/ Pekan/ Maran (216,459 ha), Rompin (184,961 ha), Raub (132,205 ha) and Temerloh/ Bera (112,784 ha) (Table 4.3). Bentong and Cameron Highlands have the smallest areas of PRF totalling 83,074 ha and 39,358 ha, respectively.
The current PRF consists of four major forest types (or working circles), namely Dry Inland Forest, Peat Swamp Forest (PSF), Mangrove Forest and Plantation Forest.The Dry Inland Forest is the most extensive (1,291,843 ha) compared to the Peat Swamp Forest (83,611 ha), Mangrove Forest (2,367 ha) and Plantation Forest (32,157 ha).A total of 74,120 ha of State Land have been proposed for inclusion into the PRF category. These comprise 19,960 ha Dry Inland Forest, 53,490 ha PSF and 671 ha Mangrove Forest. The total area of PRF after the proposed inclusion would be 1,484,098 ha. With 331,959 ha of PERHILITAN Reserves, the total area of legally protected forests would be 1,816,057 ha.
The existing organisation of the department has evolved over time based on the needs of the department.In the formative years of the department, the focus was on preservation and enforcement while as the forestry sector developed and as timber processing became a major industry, the focus expanded to include management and monitoring of forests and plantations. Other areas were added on as the need arose.Currently, the Pahang State Forestry Department has a staff strength of 1,605 personnel.
The PRF is classified into 3 broad ecological classes. They are the Dry Inland Forest which comprises all forests on mineral soils, Peat Swamp Forest and Mangrove Forest. The Dry Inland Forest has two divisions – the Natural forest and Plantation forest.All the Mangrove Forests are totally protected.A total of 488,690 ha of PRF are classed as Protection Forest while 891,064 ha are Natural Production Forest and 30,223 ha are Plantation Forest.With the Plantation Forest, the total production forest area will increase to 921,287 ha.
The PRF is divided into two broad management categories – Production Forests and Protection Forests (including Amenity Forests). Production Forests are specifically for the production of timber and other non timber forest produce and are below 1000 m altitude and comprise Lowland Dipterocarp Forest, Hill Dipterocarp Forests and parts of the Upper Dipterocarp Forest and the Peat Swamp Forests.Protection Forests include areas above 1000 m that are usually too steep for logging and maintained for soil erosion control and water catchment areas, protected areas such as conserved Ramsar sites, Virgin Jungle Reserves (VJRs), Mangrove Forest and other Totally Protected Areas (TPAs) as well as forests set aside for amenity such as for education, research and recreation.
The Production Forest are also categorised into 3 timber production zones based on categories of slopes:< 20°;20° - 40° and >40°.Where a compartment has more than 50% of the area with slopes < 20°, that compartment is classed as a TP1 compartment and conventional logging would be permitted in areas with slopes < 20°.Where a compartment has less than 50% of the area with slopes < 20°, that compartment is classed as a TP2 compartment with reduced impact logging (RIL) permitted on slopes < 40°.Areas with slopes > 40o cannot be logged altogether and has been tentatively classed as TP3 areas.The TP3 areas are thus non-productive areas and are effectively protected.
Production Forests can also be classed separately according to their logging status. They can be virgin or un-logged or forests that have been logged over different periods up to 30 years. Forests that have been regenerating over 30 years are considered as areas that can be re-logged if a Pre-Felling inventory shows that there is sufficient commercial volume available.The National Forest Inventory (NFI) has classified most of the productive forests in Peninsular Malaysia according to this system and the various ‘management condition and state’ classes are described as NFI Strata.
From an overall total of 891,064 ha of Natural Production Forest in Pahang, there are 808,623 ha of Dry Inland Forest and 82,442 ha of PSF.After subtracting the areas that cannot be logged (TP3 status) (94,441 ha Dry Inland Forest + 48,281 ha PSF), there is a Net Productive Area (NPA) of 748,343 ha of which 714,182 ha is Dry Inland PRF and 34,161 ha is PSF.Including 30,223 ha of (Production) Plantation Forest, the total production forest area in Pahang would be 778,566 ha.
According to Section 10(1)(a) of the NFA (1984), states are required to classify and gazette PRF into the different functional classes and highlight their multi-function zones. A large proportion of the PRF is listed as Protection Forest and the different functions are listed under two major functions - ecological and social.Approximately 488,690 ha of PRF are classed as Protection Forest serving both ecological and social functions.148,374 ha are for various soil conservation functions, 239,376 ha for water conservation functions and 62,011 ha for Nature conservation and 38,930 ha for Social functions (including amenity and research functions) and Non Timber Forest Products.
Although Production Forests are generally not ascribed any protection functions, there are areas within the Production Forests that cannot be logged due to specific local factors even though technically the areas are still classed within the Production Forest zones(TP3 areas). A total of 141,505 ha have been identified for soil, water and nature conservation functions. Thus effectively, there is a total of 630,195 ha of PRF that cannot be logged compared to the Net Production Area of 748,343 ha of Natural PRF.
Several PRF areas in a number of districts are noted from satellite images to be disturbed even though they have not been logged. This may be due to shifting cultivation or illegal encroachment. Such disturbed areas are common in the Lipis District and may be from shifting agriculture by Orang Asli.They are however still listed as PRF and productive forests (for timber) even though they may be bamboo dominated.Such areas need to be verified with regards to their actual status and conditions and relevant and appropriate actions taken.
Amenity Forests are natural forested areas with their own uniqueness, quality and values. They can provide various direct and indirect services to users and the local communities.These areas are usually close to towns and main roads and are easily accessed by visitors.Amenity forests play an important role in the society as they provide the public opportunities to interact with nature through recreation and ecotourism activities.They also serve as an important platform for creating and increasing public awareness of the importance of protecting our natural heritage.According to the National Forestry Policy, the functions of amenity forests are summarised as below:
- To optimise the social, economical, and environmental benefits through efficient amenity forest management;
- To encourage active local community participation in amenity forest management,community forestry program;
- To encourage education and public awareness;
- To protect the biodiversity;
- To encourage scientific research.
Based on the functions above, the objectives of amenity forest are summarised as follows:
- To provide natural areas for relaxation, picnics, and enjoying nature;
- To encourage public awareness on the importance of nature protection to the existing and future generation;
- To provide training, education and research on nature;
- To provide the public a place to enjoy nature and escaping physical and emotional stress;
- To provide economic opportunities to the surrounding local communities through ecotourism.
Amenity Forests in Pahang State cover a total active area of 55,863 ha (including Taman Negeri Endau-Rompin) and includes a total of 27 forest recreational sites.Kuantan/Pekan/Maran forest district has the highest number of recreational sites (7 recreational sites), followed by Temerloh/Bera, Jerantut and Raub/Cameron Highlands districts, each with 4 recreational sites.The lowest number of amenity forest sites is found in Rompin forest district with only 2 recreational sites.Rompin, however, has the largest Amenity Forest area (40,360 ha; 72.2%) followed by Lipis (12,653 ha; 22.7%) and Temerloh/Bera (1,770 ha; 3.2%).Jerantut forest district manages the smallest active recreational area of 46 ha or 0.08% of the total active recreational areas.
The Forestry Department recognises the important functions of the recreational forest and has been improving the facilities as well as protecting the areas.Several expeditions have also been organised in the recreational sites such as Taman Negeri Endau Rompin (in 2002) and Taman Rimba Kenong (in 2004) and the findings have been recorded and documented for future reference.
Pahang has a total forested area of over 1.8 million ha, as of December 2005.There is over 1.4 million ha of PRF of which about 1,291,843 ha are natural Dry Inland Forests, 83,611 ha are Peat Swamp Forest, 2,367 ha Mangrove Forest and 32,156 ha are forest plantations.Of the Dry Inland Forest, 483,220 ha are listed as Protection Forest while approximately 808,623 ha are Production Forest. Of the Production Forest, 465,899 ha are classified as TP 1 areas (areas with over 50% of the compartment having slopes of less than 20°), 248,283 ha as TP2 areas (areas with > 50% of the compartment having slopes over 20° but below 40°) while 94,441 ha (tentatively, referred to as TP3 areas) cannot be logged for various reasons, such as having slopes over 40°, elevations over 1,000 m or that the areas are community water catchments. Thus, there is a net total of 714,182 ha of PRF that is available for timber production.Of this, 217,398 ha are virgin forests, 134,497 ha are forests that were logged over 30 years ago and are available for re-logging while 362,286 ha were logged less than 30 years ago and are regenerating.
There are 4 Forestry Working Circles for Pahang - Dry Inland Forest, Peat Swamp Forest (PSF), Mangrove Forest and Plantation Forest.As the area of Mangrove Forests in Pahang is relatively low, it has been assigned a protected forest status and not included into the productive forest category. The PSF and Plantation Forest require different management systems and are not included in this Management Plan for the Dry Inland Forest Working Circle. The Dry Inland Forest Working Circle in Pahang has a net productive area of 714,182 ha. The PSF and the Plantation Forest have net productive areas of 82,442 ha and 30,223 ha respectively.
The Forest Department uses a formula of determining annual allowable cuts that incorporated areas under both the MUS and The Selective Management System (SMS). The continued use of this hybrid system that combines cycles of 30 and 55 years may create the impression that MUS is and can still be practiced. This will be done away with and all areas will be managed under the SMS as SMS is a sufficiently flexible system which can allow really poor areas to have their cycle period to be extended to over 30 years or more if necessary.This would then simplify and standardize the whole operation for managers and the people in the field.
The SMS will continue to be the basis of management for the Dry Inland Forest during the period 2006 to 2015. The SMS was developed to enable the flexible management of highly variable forests as well as cope with the changing socio-economic environment.It is based on the inherent characteristics of the forest and also allows for the optimisation of forest management objectives for an economic cut, sustainability of the forest and minimum cost for forest development.SMS also allows for the optimisation of the forest management objectives and allows for the selection of appropriate harvesting plan and intensity based on the inventory data.SMS operations involve a number of activities prior to harvesting, during harvesting as well as after harvesting/felling.
With the change in emphasis of forestry from being a timber production operation to one that manages the multiple resources of the forest, there is a need to ensure that timber harvesting is sustainable and also causes relatively lower impact to the environment than previously so that the other roles and functions of the forests are not seriously and adversely affected. It is well known and accepted that any form of activity that attempts to reduce the direct environmental impacts of logging (from tree felling to extraction) will effectively reduce soil disturbance and canopy opening and result in a lower sediment load in streams and rivers. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) has become a very important aspect of forest harvesting and various forms of RIL have been introduced, ranging from the use of partial aerial forms of extraction to strict preparation of skids and hauling of logs out of the forest. The form of RIL that is currently being implemented follows the guidelines prepared by the FDPM.
As forestry is also listed as a ‘prescribed activity’ in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA) for Malaysia and logging of areas over 500 ha requires an EIA to be conducted before approval is given. An EIA is also required for Timber Certification purposes. The EIA would cover the whole forestry operation rather than just the logging aspect which RIL would cover. Previously, an EIA was not conducted as many areas were below the critical level of 500 ha. This requirement should be strictly enforced/ applied/ required by the FD.Most of the impacts can be reduced by RIL procedures and as such RIL guidelines should be enforced/ applied, such as no logging in areas over 40° slope and skid trail slopes cannot be over 15°, and no crossing of streams, etc.If RIL can be strictly enforced, the impacts will be relatively minimal.
With increased awareness and recognition of the importance of Tropical forests and biodiversity in the global environment, efforts have been made to classify forests and natural areas with unique values or properties in a universally accepted scale. The concept of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) Areas has been developed and used to rate areas into 6 classes according to the following criteria:
- Globally, regionally or nationally significant concentrations of biodiversity values (HCV1),
- Globally, regionally or nationally significant large landscape-level forests (HCV2),
- Forest areas that are in or contain rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems (HCV3),
- Forest areas that provide basic services of nature in critical situations (HCV4),
- Forest areas fundamental to meeting the basic needs of local communities (HCV5) and
- Forest areas critical to local communities’ traditional cultural identity (HCV6).
All forest areas should be screened for these 6 values and areas found to have such values should be managed to maintain and enhance the specific identified values.HCV areas could be viewed as another category of forest (like TP3 areas) that needs to be conserved. This HCV assessment should be viewed positively as another step towards a more integrated and holistic management of the forest resources of the state and country and not as a step in restricting the use of the forest resource.
Yield regulation is very important to ensure sustainability under the SMS.The objective of yield regulation is to determine the area of forests that can be harvested over a specific period to ensure that there are sufficient areas for harvesting sustainably over that specified period. The amount is normally stated as the allowable cut for that period and is usually averaged to a year as the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC). The determination of the AAC is central to Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) and is to ensure a continuous supply of timber.
Yield regulation in Dry Inland Forests is done using the Area basis as the supporting data for the various models (“Modified Paulsen Hundeshagen”, “Modified Heyer” and the Dipterocarp Forest Growth Simulator (DIPSIM)) are not readily available. As such, the AAC is determined by the ‘area control’ method since the model is simple and requires easily obtainable data.
The Net Production Area (NPA) refers to the total area of PRF available for timber production.The NPA for Pahang for this proposed Plan is 714,182 ha and comprises approximately 217,398 ha virgin areas, 134,498 ha regenerated areas (available for harvesting again in the next ten years) and 362,286 ha of logged over areas still undergoing regeneration (some of which will become available after 2016 onwards till the end of the cycle.
The AAC for the 8th Malaysia Plan (MP) (2001-2005) was set at 10,670 ha for Pahang. The AAC is estimated and set by the FDPM Head Quarters (HQ) and approved by the National Forestry Council using the method and formula that is well explained in the Forest Department Forest Management Forestry Manual 2003.This AAC of 10,670 ha supplied an average volume of about 725,560 m3 of logs to the industry annually.The average total volume utilised by the industry in Pahang over the 8th MP (2001 – 2005) was about 2,000,000 m3 per year.A large fraction of this came from state land forests and possibly from outside of the state.It is foreseen that the supplies from the state land forests (and land conversion areas) are likely to drop in the future and that the supplies from the PRF may/will have to be increased to sustain the industry needs.
In calculating the AAC for Dry Inland Forest for the period 2006-2015, the Pahang FD has opted to place 45,906 ha of poor forests under MUS and only use areas that are currently available for harvesting (totalling 309,404 ha) as the net area for management, instead of the total of 668,276 ha (which includes some areas that are currently undergoing regeneration).As such, the AAC has been set at 10,313 ha. This figure is higher than the 8,330 ha originally proposed for the 9th MP (by the FDPM) and almost similar to that for the 8th MP (of 10,670 ha).This proposed AAC of 10,313 ha should provide about 701,318 m3 of timber for the industry in the state. There is also an additional AAC of 1,302 ha from PSF and Poor Dry Inland Forest.
This allocation of the AAC to the districts can be done on a number of bases: the first is based on the relative areas of Productive PRF each district has; while the second is based on the relative areas of NPA. The AAC allocated to the different districts by the two methods are not very different.Other ways of allocation of the AAC could be on the relative number of saw-mills in the district or to limit the AAC to TP1 areas in the next 10 years while new and appropriate low impact harvesting technology is being developed and tested for use in TP2 areas.As the Pahang FD has decided that there will be no more logging in Cameron Highlands, the allocation has to be revised to re-allocate the AAC to other districts as well as to revise the NPA for Pahang. The final allocation can be done on an annual basis.
There are 32,157 ha of Plantation Forests in Pahang located in Bentong and Temerloh/Bera Districts. Approximately, 1,933 ha of this is under protection status leaving approximately 30,223 ha as Production Plantation Forest.These are mainly in the Kemasul Forest Reserve and comprise Acacia mangium and some Eucalyptus spp and Conifers such as Pinus caribaea and Araucaria spp. These plantations were established in the late 1970s and early 1980s under the Compensatory Forest Plantation Programme (CFPP) and are already of harvestable condition. These forest plantations have their own management systems established earlier and are not included in this Management Plan for natural forests.
There are approximately 83,611 ha of PSF in Pahang; approximately 82,442 ha are classed as Production Forest and 1,170 ha as Protection Forest. A total of 48,281 ha of the Production Forest are categorised as TP3 areas leaving 34,161 ha as NPA.Another 53,490 ha of Peat Swamp Forest currently under the State Land Classification have been proposed as PRF.Approximately 30,439 ha of the area proposed for re-classification as PRF actually refers to the Fresh-Water Swamp of Tasek Bera area which is recognised as a RAMSAR Site.
The productive PSF can be managed using a system similar to the SMS, but as the basic parameters of growth and volumes are quite different from those of Dry Inland Forests, they would require different cycle lengths and cutting limits. The Management Plan for the PSF is being developed separately. The PSF is tentatively managed under a 55 year cycle with poor Dry Inland Forest. The total area under this 55 year cycle includes 45,906 ha of poor Dry Inland Forest and 82,442 ha of PSF, giving a total of 128,348 ha. The AAC for these forests under the 55 year cycle for the 9th Malaysia Plan has been set at 1,302 ha.
There are 2,367 ha of Mangrove PRF in Pahang and all are listed as Protection Forest.These forests are found only in Kuantan / Pekan/ Maran (1,828 ha) and Rompin (539 ha).Another 671 ha of Mangrove Forests currently under Stateland category have been proposed as PRF.These Mangrove Forests have their own Management Plan which is being developed separately.
There are 488,690 ha of Protection Forests in Pahang. Of these Protection Forests, the largest extent is for water catchments (239,376 ha) and the next largest area is for Soil Protection and reclamation (148,374 ha). There are 62,011 ha for Nature Conservation, (comprising 39,638 ha under the State National Park class, 16,963 ha for Wildlife Protection and 5,410 ha of Virgin Jungle Reserves (VJR) and 38,930 ha for Social and Amenity functions (comprising 28,249 ha for Amenity and 10,680 ha for Federal purposes). These are categories under section 10 of the National Forestry Act.
In addition to this Protection Forest category, there are about 142,722 ha of Production Forest categorised as TP3 areas. These areas cannot be logged for similar protective reasons; but while these areas still remain under the Production Forest class, they have to be managed as Protection Forests.
There are 16 VJRs ranging from 50 ha to over 350 ha comprising the 3 major forest types.Some of these VJR are located in forest reserves that are being actively used by the public as places for recreation (e.g. Beserah) and should be regularly monitored for disturbance and illegal encroachment and also natural disturbance – landslides or wind- or storm damage and appropriate actions taken. Boundaries of these reserves have to be well posted and marked. The management of these VJR need to be systematic and sound and be based on a well developed management plan.
Societal needs of forests and forest products and services are also considered in this plan. The needs of the Orang Asli have been assessed as they are highly dependent on the forest for their livelihood. There is a need to consider their requirement of forest areas for collection of materials for construction and sustenance and also opportunities for employment such as in recreation and eco-tourism and involvement in community forestry projects.
The need and demands for timber and other forest produce for the whole state has also to be assessed and efforts made to meet as much of these needs through multiple use approaches in forest management.Industry needs have also been assessed.
Boundary control and patrolling can be a problem where PRF border settlements or settlements have developed along logging roads. Clear demarcation of boundaries with signs and warnings on penalties can be partially effective against encroachment and other illegal entries and have to be matched with effective enforcement.
In view of the paucity of information on Growth and Yield and the basic parameters for SMS, more research and development (R&D) will be conducted to place SFM on a sounder scientific basis.A more comprehensive and thorough analysis of the existing data need to be done and additional Permanent Sampling Plots (PSP) and Growth and Yield plots will have to be established within Pahang.There will need to be more research at other sites and on more species in order to get a better understanding of the ecology and growth rates of the important species and the different forests.
Currently, Pahang still has relatively large areas of virgin forests and the FD will consider establishing more protected areas (PA) and VJR in the different forest types for better conservation of Biodiversity. In addition to these, when HCV Areas are included, there will also be an additional need to manage these HCV Areas so that their functions are effectively sustained and conserved
Principle 9 of the ‘Malaysian Criteria and Indicators for Forest Management Certification (MC&I (2002))’ is concerned with the ‘maintenance of high conservation value forests’.There are 4 criteria that support this principle, They are that an assessment to determine the presence of the attributes consistent with High Conservation Value Forests will be completed, appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest management; a consultation section of the certification process must place emphasis on the identified conservation attributes and options for the maintenance thereof;the management plan shall include and implement specific measures that ensure the maintenance and /or enhancement of the applicable conservation attributes consistent with the precautionary approach and that these measures shall be specifically included in the publicly available management plan summary and annual monitoring shall be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the measures employed to maintain or enhance the applicable conservation attributes.
Assessing the Pahang State Forest Department (SFD) in this management plan for compliance with Principle 9 of the MC&I (2002) raises the following issues: that provisions to address HCVF issues were NOT made by the GTZ when the framework for this management plan was drafted (Pahang Forest Management Plan) and there areno guidance for planning or management of HCVF in theManual Perhutanan or instruction for compliance from the National Forestry Council (NFC).
Until now, the criteria for Principle 9 and the management of ‘values’ of HCVFs have not been explicit management objectives of the SFD.However, management activities by the SFD specified by the National Forestry Council and outlined in the Manual Perhutanan have provided some support both for the criteria mentioned above, through management activities outlined in the Manual Perhutanan,and the ‘values’ of HCVFs through protection under Section 10 of the NFA as well as operational management activities.
Principles 9.1 and9.3 are currently well supported through currentpractices by the Pahang State Forest Department (SFD),but Principles 9.2 and 9.4 have introduced new requirements that are not currently a mainstream activity of the SFD and which would require a programme for implementation to improve communications and consultation. Of the six HCVF types proposed all are, or are planned to be, supported in both the dedicated protection forests classes under NFA Section 10 b – k, as well as the production forest class. Many of the standard operating procedures as specified in the Manual Perhutanan already support the maintenance and enhancement of various HCVF ‘values’.But if the SFD were to be limited to its current management capacity, addressing current HCVF management ‘gaps’ will be difficult.
All forest areas that have been gazetted protection under categories ‘b’ onwards in Section 10 of the NFA and production forests that cannot be logged have been mapped and compared with corresponding HCVF values to measure the extent to which HCVF values have been supported by current management efforts.
HCV1 areas include 332,332 ha in:Taman Negara, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pulau Tioman and Pahang Tua, under Jabatan PERHILITAN management. The Jabatan PERHILITAN was also responsible for another 30,000 hectare at the Tasek Bera ‘Ramsar Site’.As of the end of 2006, there were no areas with HCVF1 value in the PRF.At that time, the 39,000 ha Endau-Rompin area was technically still a production forest, but was managed for HCVF objectives.
There is sufficient information on HCV 2 for these areas to be mapped.Large contiguous landscape units are required to maintain a stable tiger population.Since the tiger is regardedas an ‘umbrella’ species, it is argued that the conservation of tiger conservation units would also conserve the whole ecological community to which the tiger belongs.The protection and production forests of the main range and the areas contiguous with Taman Negara and Endau Rompin can be considered as forests with HCV2 values.Mapping this area suggests that 1.1 million hectares of the PRF may support HCV2 values of which 68.1% is in production forest areas and 31.8% in protection areas.
HCV3 value areas can be mapped from ecological models.Unlike the Jabatan PERHILITAN and FRIM initiatives, there is no current institutional work on ecosystems.However, the ‘ecosystems’ can be modelled using the Symington/Wyatt Smith ecological models familiar to foresters.By building a model of the original, undisturbed ecosystems in the state and comparing that to the current extent of unaltered ecosystems, it can be seen that the ecosystems that have been most threatened by forest clearance are the riverine, coastal and BRIS areas.These cover about 90,000 hectares or 6.4% of the PRF.Approximately, 67% of these endangered ecosystem areas are inside protected forest areas; those areas in production forests would be conserved through management of riverine buffers.
The SFD has had a long history of protecting HCVF4 areas, especially HCV4.1 (water catchments) and HCV4.2 (erosion control) areas.Following instruction from the NFC, these protected forest areas have been mapped and gazetted.
The social values of forests are HCV5 and 6.Without detailed knowledge of sites with HCV6 for traditional cultural identity, it is assumed that HCV6 areas are contained within HCV5 areas.For the purpose of compliance with the MC&I, HCV5 and 6 areas are mapped together.These areas have been modelled as locations with known Orang Asli settlements and a 4 km buffer area where their needs for NTFPs are expected to be met, as well as the areas set aside by the SFD to protect local community water catchment areas.These areas cover approximately 349,760 hectares or 24.7% of the PRF.Of this 54% overlaps production forest areas.
Where HCV 1-4 are concerned, the areas with the identified conservation values have been identified and gazetted under Section 10 of the NFA.The sections in most cases have been identified to possess HCVs 1-4.Where HCV5 and 6 are concerned the areas have provisionally been identified on Maps but this would have to go through a more rigid consultative process and verification undertaken before any management intervention can be undertaken.These HCVs will be taken into consideration when this management Plan is reviewed.
The goals of Sustainable Forest Management in Pahang generally follow the targets of the National Forest Policy 1978 (revised in 1992) which specifically emphasizes the roles in regulating timber supply, maintaining environmental goods and services as well as the provision of amenity and forest-related support for the social needs of the public.
The corporate strategies to achieve these objectives include the following actions:
- Maintain and increase existing acreage of the Permanent Reserve Forest.
- Implement the criteria, guidelines and activities prescribed in the MS ISO 9002 and the Malaysian Criteria and Indicators for Forest Management Certification (MC&I).
- Intensive forest management planning and establishment of a forestry based Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
- Manage production, protection and conservation areas according to their forest classification as well as increasing forest enforcement efficiency.
- Prepare a Master Plan to improve and promote amenity forest as tourist destination.
- Introduce environmentally friendly technology in forest processing mills and wastes recycling.
- Improve public awareness on forest importance with circulation of forestry related information.
- Encourage and support forest agriculture program and urban forestry activities.
- Implement human resource development program
- Provide adequate infrastructure and facilities.
Various actions and operations will be undertaken in order to achieve the objectives and targets required for Sustainable Forest Management. These are broadly summarised under three categories – Operations, Administration and Research and Conservation.The various activities are described.
Operations wise, there has to be ground checks of all the PRF to ensure that the boundaries are intact and that there is no encroachment. Changes have to be relayed to the ICT unit to update the changes and appropriate action taken.Currently there are efforts to increase the extent of the PRF and more efforts will be made to include a greater diversity of ecological types.There has to be efforts to enhance and streamline SMS operations and implement stringent monitoring and enforcement.
The Environmental Impact Assessment of the State Forest Management Unit (FMU) that is being developed currently should be implemented. The EIA should be reviewed and the recommendations closely followed, monitored and enforced by the FD staff as well as DOE officers.The EIA will also be reviewed and assessed by external auditors for compliance under the Forest Certification Guidelines.
RIL and Low Impact Logging should be implemented.Guidelines are currently available for Reduced Impact Logging but newer guidelines have to be developed for Low Impact Harvesting for TP2 areas and these have to be enforced, monitored and reviewed regularly by the FD staff as well as external personnel for certification purposes.
In addition to the current Management Plan for Dry Inland Forest, there are separate plans for the Peat Swamp Forest, Mangrove and Plantation Forests, which have/are being developed separately.Management Plans for other Forest Categories should also be developed.There are over 488,000 ha of Protection Forests in Pahang comprising 239,376 ha for water catchments, 148,374 ha for Soil Protection and reclamation, 62,011 ha for Nature Conservation, and 38,930 ha for Social and Amenity functions.In addition, there are also about 179,000 ha of Production Forest (categorized as TP3 areas) which cannot be logged for similar protective reasons and hence should also be managed as Protection Forests.These separate Management Plans will have to be developed for the various categories of Protection Forest and where necessary, co-ordination with other agencies involved in the protection and area management, such as Perhilitan and DID.
Administration wise, the Pahang FD has initiated the re-organization of the dept in view of the increasing demand for professionalism as well as the need for specialization in the forestry field. The number of professional staff will increase significantly with the re-organization.There will also be a concurrent increase in support staff as well as in the office space and equipment requirements.
The incorporation of ICT is a step towards the future and for SFM to be achieved. The database of all PRF in the state (locations, maps, condition and status and other information) has been digitised and computerised and when logging proceeds, all the data have to be updated continuously. The detail logging schedules for the different districts for the different years will also be updated. The areas are divided into TP1 and TP2 classes to enable improved decision making regarding the areas to be logged and also the logging methods to use.Optimally, TP1 areas should be preferentially logged, while TP2 areas are conserved while better low impact logging methods are developed over the next five years. This will ensure that when the TP2 areas are subsequently logged they will be logged using effective low impact harvesting technologies.
The clearing of backlog of Silviculturally Untreated Areas has to be intensified. This is an important component of SFM as untreated areas can seriously affect the total area that becomes available for the next cutting cycle and hence the sustainability of forest management.The FD has to ensure that in future the area being surveyed under Post-felling inventories and treated annually is at least equal to the AAC so that no backlog will accumulate.
Training on RIL and Low Impact Logging Techniques should be initiated as RIL is an important element of SFM.It is imperative that concessionaires and logging contractors be made aware of RIL techniques and technologies. There should be some form of training and certificate program to ensure that only trained personnel are involved in extracting timber.Low Impact Harvesting techniques should also be introduced and tested so that TP2 areas can be harvested with minimal impact.
There should be training for Protection Forest Management. The various categories of protected forest under the PRF require separate and appropriate management to ensure the functions and roles are sustained. Some form of monitoring of the areas in terms of boundary checks as well as the assessment of the state of the forest need to be conducted regularly by appropriately trained staff.
Research and Conservation are also areas that require attention as research provides the necessary information for management.Sustainable Forest Management has to be scientifically sound and the rate of harvest of forest products have to be related to the natural rate of growth of the product. The current state of knowledge of the ecology and growth of forests and the potential yield is still relatively poor.Hence, there is a need for well designed and conducted research and the efforts should begin with the following:
A comprehensive review of Growth and Yield (G & Y) data is essential.Several recent reports of the growth and yield studies have indicated that the growth of trees after logging has been very variable as has been the estimated of volume yield.Preliminary review of some of these has indicated that the analyses of the data has not been very thorough and hence there is an urgent need to thoroughly review and analyse all the data to ensure that the results are accurate and to update the growth assumptions of the SMS.More plots (PSP and Growth Plots) in different forests (e.g. Red-Meranti, Keruing, and Kapur sub-types) should also be established to get more species specific growth data.
Establish more research and conservation areas. In line with the above, more G & Y plots in different forest types should be established, so that the results are representative for the respective forest types. Currently the SMS assumptions are used for all Dry Inland Forests, irrespective of sub types of forests. In view of the importance of Biodiversity and HCVF as well as eco-tourism, there is a need to establish more conservation areas. There are many natural ecosystems in Pahang as the terrain extends from sea level to over 2,000m and representative systems should be protected and conserved.
More studies and surveys on the forest environment should be conducted. These include studies and surveys on hydrology, soil erosion, logging impacts and technologies and other aspects of the forest environment, including surveys on HCVs in the various areas/ecosystems. All these activities will provide information to support the selection and establishment of research and conservation areas.
Regular reviews should be conducted on all aspects of operations, administration and research and conservation so that there are opportunities for feedback and change in the direction of improvement.This form of adaptive management would be essential to achieving SFM and sustain the environment as well as sustaining forestry related industries and opportunities.